(ISBN 978-81-920073-0-4)

Ratikanta Maiti, Humberto Gonzalez Rodriguez and Pratik Satya

Next to food producing plants, fiber plants play a significant role in early and modern civilization. Among the bast fibers, jute (Corchorus olitorius, C. Capsularis), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, H. Sabdariffa) and other species are mostly of secondary origin (cambium), while ramie (Boehmeria nivea) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) are mostly of primary origin (procambium). Besides, fibers are obtained from different plant parts such as cotton from seeds, sisal (Agave) from leaves, coir from fruits, Muhlenbergia from roots and so on.

A number of fiber plants are cultivated in a particular country or localized climatic region.  Agave lecheguilla grown in Texas border and northern Mexico, and Agave sisalana of eastern Mexico, the Chinese silk plant (Boehmeria nivea) of tropical Asia, Indian hemp (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), Jamaica sorrel (H. sabdariffa L.), Spanish dagger plant (Yucca carnerosana) and one similar to jute, congo jute (Urena lobata). Agave lecheguilla and Yucca carnerosana are explored in arid and semi-arid Mexico for production of fibers for industry and domestic uses.

This book deals with distribution, origin, botany, ecological conditions, agronomy, harvesting method, quality, and processing of different species of fibers. In addition, the different aspects of fiber plants grown in wild condition, the methods of extraction, processing, and uses of different species vary widely. It also provides a critical analysis of prospects and problems of fiber crops. It deserves special attention to the scholars for the mysteries of its origin, its structure, its productivity and its great economic importance in modern civilization.



(ISBN 978-81-920073-1-1)

Ratikanta Maiti, P. Umashankkar, D. Rajkumar, A. Ramaswamy and P. Vidyasagar

Vegetables are our daily dietary supplements as they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals and fibers. Most vegetables are used for nutrition but some even have therapeutic properties used in medicine. There are diverse forms of vegetables in nature, some commonly found in all geographical regions but a few restricted to specific regions. Such species, termed endemic species, have small range of adaptability, hence found growing in small pockets of climatic regions. Thus vegetable crops develop different adaptations either morphologically or anatomically in order to survive under different habitat conditions. Each crop variety has its own distinct range of adaptations that give it a characteristic identity.

The present book, Botany of Vegetable Crops, is different from other books on vegetable crops. It discusses on the morphology and anatomy of a few common vegetable plants. Morphological characters help in identifying the plant. It also gives an idea of the different adaptive modifications in the plant. It even mirrors the habitat, the climatic conditions under which it can be cultivated. The anatomical studies of each of the vegetable plant are also being presented here as we believe the morphological characters alone cannot project the adaptations in the plant. They can better be understood when supplemented with the anatomical characteristics unique to individual type of crop.

We expect that this book would be of great help to a student of plant sciences, to a research scholar for reference and a good source of information, to a plant breeder, and to the scientific community in general.



(ISBN 978-81-920073-2-8)

Ratikanta Maiti

Field crops are the source of energy for majority of the people all over the world. It includes all grain crops, pulses, oilseed crops. Field crops are the source of carbohydrate, protein, fats, vitamins and minerals especially for the developing and underdeveloped countries. So a descriptive knowledge on these crops is so important for the crop production concerns. A botanical detail is not only important for understanding yielding potentiality but also its adaptation to new environment. Anatomical representation through pictorial description is very important to get knowledge of the physiological response of the plant to the environmental stresses. The overview of the physiological traits may be worthy for crop planning and management.

Our endeavor has been to collect, classify and present information on various botanical aspects of important field crops. It encompasses on the morphology and anatomy of crops. Morphological depiction can help not only in identifying the plant, but also to understand adaptive mechanism that suits to new environment. It even mirrors the habitat, the climatic conditions under which it can be cultivated. It is against the background that we have taken up the task of documenting and integrating scientific information on this botanical description of crops under one cover.

This book will be immensely useful to the students, faculties and research scholars in the field of plant and agricultural sciences. Book entitling the similar kind may be available, however the presentation and depiction of the botanical/ anatomical features are unique and special.



(ISBN 978-81-920073-3-5)

Ratikanta Maiti, A. Ramaswamy and D.Rajkumar

 “The study of gross internal structure of plant organs by the technique of section cutting is called plant anatomy (ana=asunder ; temmein=to cut)”. Anatomy is the branch of science which deals with the internal structures and organization of the organisms. It is also known as internal morphology.

Anatomy helps in understanding the evolution of different plant communities.  It plays an important role for adaptation of plant to different biotic and abiotic stress.  It has been documented that some glands, trichomes, epicuticular wax are resistant to insect pests. Similarly, the presence of trichomes epicuticular wax, compactly arranged palisade tissue, collenchyma and sclerenchyma induces drought resistance. So it is necessity of all scientists, especially for breeder, plant physiologist to have the thorough knowledge on plant anatomy for the selection of adaptable cultivars and also for better management of crops. This book covers all the aspects of internal structures of plant with its high resolution microscopic images and drawings of plant parts. This helps scholars in understanding the anatomical structures.

The anatomical studies of plants organs are being presented here, as we believe that the morphological characters alone cannot project the adaptations in the plant. They can be better understood when supplemented with the anatomical characteristics, unique to individual type of crop.

This text book would be of great help to faculties and scholars in plant as well as agricultural sciences and scientific communities in general as a good source of information and references.